The severity of the intellectual disability is determined by the discrepancy between the individual's capabilities in learning and in and the expectations of the social environment. The newer terms of intellectual disability or developmental disability are becoming far more accepted and prevalent within the field. Prevalence Prevalence ratings for intellectual disabilities are inconsistent, highlighting the often hidden nature of intellectual disabilities within other disability classifications.
Values are guiding principles decisive in day to day behaviour as also in critical life situations. In this age of rapid social change influenced by technology, there appears a value crisis in the society.
Some values seem to perish, some submerging into others, some new have emerged and some new ones are gaining creditability. As a mathematical analogy values seem to be variables and are not constants to be banked upon.
Value regeneration has therefore, to be attempted continuously.
The stress on development has to be pervasive and permitting since it involves multifarious social group in cases like Indian nations. Education in India is to play the most significant role in developing and fastening human resources and man power needs.
It is believed that nation will realize her aspiration through being given to citizens at different levels of schooling.
In this regard education commission report reads: This is a basic to every program of social and economic betterment of which India stands in need. For instance, there can be no hope of making country self-sufficient in food unless the farmer himself is moved out of his age long conservatism through a science based education, becomes interested in experimentation and is ready to adopt that increases yields.
The same is true of industry. The skilled manpower needed for the research and its systematic application to agriculture, industry and other sectors of life can only come from a development of scientific and technological education.
Similarly economic growth is not nearly a matter of physical resources or of training skilled workers: It needs the education of the whole population in new ways of life, thought and work".
Values form the empirical element of personality of the individuals, influence their thought and behaviour. They are normative standards by which human beings are influenced in the choice among alternative courses of action. Values do not come as a gift.
Right from dawn of civilization on this planet, man has perpetually found himself in the midst of change, i. This change experienced by man is not confined to change in cultural modes of behaviour, mores and social norms but embraces all psycho-social aspect of human behaviour which regulate and determine the normal behaviour of a man in his society.
Concept of values is recent development in the field of social Psychology. Accepting such a big responsibility for education, the system should thus provide a meaningful way to produce good and competent Teachers, Physicians, Agriculturists and Engineers.
In the words of Kothari, "the most powerful tool in the process of modernization is education based on science and technology. The one great lesson of the present age of science is back, with determination and willingness to put in hard work, prosperity is within the reach of any nation which has a stable and progressive government".
Modernization in India aims, "at creating an economy of plenty which will offer to every individual a larger way of life and a wide variety of choice while this freedom to choose has its own advantages, it also means that the future of society will depend increasingly upon the type of choice each individual makes.
This would naturally depend upon his motivation and sense of values, for he might make the choice with reference entirely to own personal satisfaction or in a sprit if service to common good".
How far this attitude of mind is imbibed by the people of the country in changing circumstances need to be discussed, in this context that the importance of knowing personality and interest patterns of people for different occupations has been widely felt since long, as these factors go to help a good deal at the time of employing and placing people in different occupations.
Attempts have also been made to assess general adjustment, specific limits and to ascertain their significance to vocational success.
Differences in interests and values have important practical and theoretical implications, as psychological theorists have turned their attention to the significance of choice and decision in human affairs, the significance of interests and values as determiners and organizers of such decisions has been increasingly stressed the system of living in any set of influence values as well.
Hall and Lindsey pointed out that, "in general, than, most personality theorists seem to conceive of a man as a purposive creature but even were this is not taken for granted it does not seem to be matter of hot dispute".
Rani found that values were regarded as standard and pattern of choice which one feels important and developed as positive convection that guides a person and serves as the authority in the name of which choices were made and action were taken for getting satisfaction, fulfillment and meaning.
A value is just like other development a state of mind, a mental disposition, an attitude or an emotional state of mind towards some idea or tradition carrying positive and negative changes within itself. Kumar the rural and urban female teaches trainees have almost the same kind of perception as far as religions values, aesthetic value and health value was concerned.
Rural female teacher trained on the basis of mean score show more inclination toward values as compared to urban counter parts emitted. There exists positive co-relation between environmental awareness and social value as well as health value. Sharma found that the in-service secondary male teachers do not differ significantly on religious value, social value democratic value, aesthetic value, economic value, knowledge value, domestic value, power Value family prestige value and health value.
On the basis of mean scores, in service secondary school male teachers have more belief in health value as compared to pre-service secondary school female teachers.Common Elements of Effective Schools. Education World explores the strategies educators at KIPP Academy Charter School, Mother Hale Academy, and Crossroads School are using to break the cycle of failure for students living in some of New York City's most disadvantaged neighborhoods.
Geography teacher quality and effectiveness: Lower Secondary School Students’ points of view quality teachers able to teach geography in primary and secondary schools in an effective while the model of characteristics of effective teachers.
Factors contributing to effective Mathematics teaching The most important factors that contributed to effective Mathematics teaching of upper secondary Mathematics teachers in Brunei seemed to stem from the Mathematics teachers themselves, whereas the school context or the school administration only seems to impact teaching effectiveness to a.
secondary school administrators thereby hindering effective and efficient management of the secondary schools.
The neglect of this aspect often results to . Five Essential Marks of Catholic Schools ARCHBISHOP J. MICHAEL MILLER, C.S.B Papal interventions and Roman documents repeatedly emphasize that certain characteristics must be present for a school to be considered authentically Catholic.
the important role that school leadership can play in creating effective schools is well documented. taLis illustrates the roles and functions that school leaders adopt within schools – often facing quite different.